What are the main causes of infertility?

Infertility is defined as the inability to carry a pregnancy to term. It may be primary infertility when you have never achieved pregnancy or secondary when you already have a child or children at home. It is also referred to as recurrent or repeated miscarriage. This implies 2 consecutive miscarriages or 3 interspersed around one birth.

The most common causes of repeated miscarriage are:

  • Genetic: The presence of balanced chromosomal abnormalities in the parents (translocations, inversions) can produce conception imbalance which is incompatible with the creation of life and so produces a miscarriage. In these cases it is advisable to perform a karyotype on the parents as well as on the miscarriage itself. A mother of advanced age is also associated with an increased risk of miscarriage due to genetic causes.
  • Anatomical: Uterine abnormalities may be associated with repeated miscarriage. It can be diagnosed by a transvaginal ultrasound (2D or 3D), an HSG, an MRI or especially a hysteroscopy. The septate uterus is the main alteration associated with congenital uterine infertility. Its etiology is a defect in the re-absorption of the fused caudocranial Müllerian ducts. The treatment of such is hysteroscopic septoplasty. Submucosal fibroids is an issues but this can be treated by a hysteroscopic myomectomy.
  • Immunologic: The presence of several autoantibodies (defences that act against the body itself) can cause miscarriage. The most frequently associated are antiphospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies.
  • Thrombophilia genetic abnormalities of the patient’s coagulation system which creates a hypercoagulable state, which may be associated with repeated miscarriage. These include the Factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210, hyperhomocysteinemia, etc.
  • Endocrine: Poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes, mainly hypothyroidism, may be associated with repeated miscarriage.

Contact Instituto Bernabeu

Subscribe to IB's newsletter

Facebook Twitter Youtube




Would you like to be advised?

Schedule an appointment at one of our centres

Appointment information

Thank you for your interest in our institution. We will contact you soon to confirm your request.

If you prefer to contact us by phone, please call:

+34 965 50 40 00

Bebé Instituto Bernabeu