Archive for the 'Genetics' category

Difference between identical and fraternal twins

Apr 17 2014 Published by under Genetics, Gynaecology, News, Pregnancy

01Before establishing the biological origin differences between identical and fraternal twins, let’s make a quick note on the etymology of both words.

Etymologically both terms have the same origin (Latin gemellicium) and were used interchangeably to refer to children born in the same delivery. The only difference was the use of the term fraternal twin in the popular speech twin and identical twin in the cultivated speech. However, the semantic evolution of both words has been accompanied by the numerous advances in the field of genetics and knowledge of the development of the human embryo. In fact, since they differ in the latest edition of the dictionary of the RAE: Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

What is a Chemical Pregnancy?

01 There are times when we give patients the results of  in vitro fertilization, we tell them that the test is positive but that it is not good news, and that the chances that it evolves into an ongoing pregnancy are slim. It is a very difficult situation, emotionally, since it is very hard for patients to understand what has happened. If it really is positive, then why isn’t that good news? If it’s not good news, then why do I still have to take medication?

Most of these cases will show a negative result some days later, and it is considered a chemical pregnancy. What has happened is that there was implantation of the embryo (if not the  bHCG could not have come back positive) and the embryo stopped developing some days later. This is simply a very early miscarriage, so early that it cannot be confirmed via ultrasound, and is resolved without any medication or D&C.

This situation occurs in around 10% of IVF cycles. This means that around 1 in 10 embryo transfers, the pregnancy test is positive but the pregnancy will never be seen on an ultrasound. This is clearly linked to the  bHCG levels taken 8-10 days after embryo transfer, but must be confirmed a few days later with another test, as we explained previously.

These “chemical pregnancies” are not only in assisted reproduction, but also occur naturally in spontaneous pregnancies. The majority of them are undiagnosed, because women confuse them with delays in their period. However with new pregnancy tests, which are getting more sensitive, women more frequently are seeing unclear or positive results then are then negative a few days later. This should be seen as a natural part of reproduction: just as some embryos are unable to implant, others that do are not able to continue their development, and never seen on an ultrasound.

Patients are obviously full of doubts when this situation arises: what consequences does this have in the future? Is this an obstacle in trying to obtain a pregnancy? Does it lessen the chances in a future attempt?

02The answers we can give based on scientific evidence are quite positive. Couple who have a positive result have a better prognosis in future attempts. This has been proven in a number of publications  and should be explained to patients so that it is taken into account when making a decision.

Even though it does not mean anything negative in the reproductive future of a couple, many chemical pregnancies cause a sense of “loss” that adds to the emotional burden  already present for people with fertility problems. This is why we should always be present for any concerns that these patients may have, and give them all the necessary information that they need to overcome the situation and continue to try and reach their goal.

Dr. Joaquín Llácer, gynecologist for Instituto Bernabeu.

To found out the next topics for our forum: follow us on facebook or twitter.

You can arrange an online consultation or book an appointment at Instituto Bernabeu.

More information on our website: www.institutobernabeu.com/en/ or www.ibbiotech.com

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

Genetic approach to embryo implantation failure and repeated miscarriage

Couples that don’t achieve pregnancy after in vitro fertilization treatments and those who lose their pregnancy in early stages require a multidisciplinary approach in order to diagnose and treat their reproductive problem.

 01.3-1-20_2

From a genetic point of view, these patients are more likely to produce embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. To improve these couples’ pregnancy rates, the preimplantational genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be applied. In these cases, the goal is to select the embryos with the highest capacity of resulting in an ongoing pregnancy thanks to the fact that the PGD allows us to identify the number of chromosomes in the embryo. Only embryos with the correct number of chromosomes can lead to a healthy child, others will arrest in their development or will lead to a miscarriage. Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

Using Magnetic Fields to Select Healthy Sperm: MACS (Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting)

MACS Instituto BernabeuIt is well known that having the best possible sperm quality is important to the success of assisted reproduction techniques. To achieve this, the lab has to improve sperm quality based on its motility and morphology, selecting the sperm that is considered to be the best.

However in every ejaculate sperm with abnormal membranes are found, which are programmed to “die”. This process is called apoptosis, or programmed cell death.   Approximately 20% of sperm in subfertile patients are  thought to be in the process of “celular death”. Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

Instituto Bernabeu Shared Risk Program: serious commitment to the result

“WE’RE NOT TALKING ABOUT STATISTICS, WE ENSURE YOUR PREGNANCY.”

IFRAME Embed for Youtube

Instituto Bernabeu has always been loyal to its patient care philosophy, and is even more so now in these current hard times, by planning and implementing new projects and services aimed at helping couples achieve their dream of parenthood.

We want to share your efforts and risk by promising to back up every activity with the latest equipment, innovative techniques and cutting-edge technology alongside our entire team’s professionalism, experience, warmth and dedication. Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

Array-CGH: Discovering the miracles of the embryo. Comprehensive Chromosome Screening (CCS)

IFRAME Embed for Youtube

New technologies are making remarkable progress in the diagnosis of fertility. The latest development that has been incorporated into the range of diagnostic techniques is called array-CGH.

This new genetic test allows us to analyze our cells’ DNA to limits that years ago we would have considered pure science fiction.

The human genome is made up of 46 chromosomes: 23 from the father and 23 from the mother. All of our organism’s genetic information is stored in these chromosomes. The excess or defect of any chromosome region may be responsible for certain diseases or fertility problems, such as implantation failure or recurrent miscarriages. Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

Chromosomal alterations in repeated miscarriages

Imagen9-e1297356992948Couples who get pregnant, either naturally or through assisted reproductive techniques, are especially worried about the successful outcome of the pregnancy.

Unfortunately, some pregnancies end in miscarriage or fetal loss in the week 20 of pregnancy, when the fetus is not able to survive outside of the maternal uterus. Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

Becoming a mother after 40

Nowadays, we all know that maternity is being postponed, currently standing at 31 years of age, according to the National Statistics Institute.

This basically means that the average woman has her first child at the age of 31. Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

Indications of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a new technique used in Reproductive Medicine and is one of the main sources of innovation and research. PGD allows embryos to be selected from assisted reproduction cycles and tested for certain genetic or chromosomal abnormalitybefore being transferred to the womb.

IFRAME Embed for Youtube

Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet

Egg donation explained simply

IFRAME Embed for Youtube

For 21 years, egg donation has been a treatment that Instituto Bernabeu offers to women who need it, which has made it a European reference point for egg donation.

It is the reproductive technique with the highest pregnancy rates, over 60% per cycle. At IB, the overall pregnancy rate after three cycles of treatment is over 90%. Continue Reading »

Would you like to book an appointment?

 

Find out more about our services

No responses yet