When in vitro fertilisation treatment commences, one of the aims is to try and achieve an appropriate number of good quality embryos in the laboratory so that the best ones can be selected and transferred. Whilst the Spanish law on assisted reproduction (Law 14/2006) permits transfer of a maximum of 3 embryos per cycle, progress in techniques has meant that […]
Whilst it is not part of the day-to-day routine at reproductive
medicine clinics, it is now increasingly common to have to transport biological
samples (oocytes, semen or embryos) from one clinic to another and even from
one country to another.
There can be several reasons for this such as the following:
couple wishes to continue their treatment in a […]
Nowadays, many couples have to turn to gamete donation in order
to make their dream of becoming parents come true. In cases such as these, the
couple tends to have common and understandable doubts about reproduction
treatment clinics’ processes for accepting gamete donors onto their banks.
Let us use this forum to explain the semen donor selection process at Instituto Bernabeu […]
Personalising courses of treatment is undoubtedly currently the
most important area of change in the field of medicine. A specific strategy should be designed
depending on each patient’s individual characteristics.
One of the key areas for developing personalised medical healthcare is the use of pharmacogenetics. A patient needs different doses or types of pharmaceutical drugs depending on certain genetic variations. […]
The risk of contracting HIV during unprotected sexual intercourse is estimated to be between 0.5 and 1%. For serodiscordant couples (one partner is a carrier), trying for a child naturally can entail an elevated risk of transmission. In cases such as these, assisted reproduction techniques are an excellent choice for getting pregnant without the risk […]
When an oocyte is in an optimum state of maturation, ovulation takes place. This is known as day 0 of development (D0) and fertilisation by a competent spermatozoon must take place during this period.
When the oocyte is fertilised, it is then known as a zygote and
we are now on D1 of development. Certain characteristics and essential
structures need […]
Embryo fragmentation is a phenomenon that takes place in most embryos and its origin is not entirely clear. Some studies would seem to suggest that the fragments come from cell remains that have no nucleus or that they are the result of the decomposition of one or more cells from the embryo itself. The oocyte plays the most important role in fragmentation. Poor oocyte quality can lead to embryos that are highly fragmented. Embryo quality is determined by several characteristics such as the number of cells, their size or if the cell interior has an abnormality of any kind such as granularity or vacuolisation. However, one of the factors that has most impact on embryo quality is the extent of fragmentation. Based on the amount, in percentage, of space that it occupies, fragmentation is categorised into 4 types or degrees. […]
Cryptorchidism, from the Greek words kriptos (hidden) and orquis (testicle), is the failure of one or both testes to descend to the scrotum. It is estimated that between 2 and 5% of newborn boys have this abnormality although the figure rises to 30% when premature boys are taken into account. In many cases, the issue resolves itself naturally and, as a result, at one year of age, only 1% of boys have the condition. […]
Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition caused by partial or total loss of one of the X chromosomes.
All human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes and this is what is known as the karyotype. It is where all genetic information is stored. In other words, it is what determines our external appearance, our personal physical characteristics, how our organs work, whether or not we will have certain illnesses and so on. There are 22 pairs of numerical chromosomes ranging from 1 to 22 and one pair of sex chromosomes: X and Y. Women have two X chromosomes – one from their father and one from their mother. Men have one X chromosome – from their mother – and one Y chromosome – from their father. If, when a female embryo is generated, incorrect division leading to total or partial loss of the X chromosome takes place, this generates an abnormal karyotype that is characteristic of women with Turner syndrome. The syndrome, by definition, does not occur in males because they only have one X chromosome and cannot live unless this chromosome is present. […]