Uroandrological Dictionary

Testicular Doppler Ultrasound: routine procedure in the Uroandrology department. It allows us to assess through ultrasound testicular morphology and surrounding structures. It is a harmless test for the patient that provides important data for clinical diagnosis.

Seminogram or ejaculated semen study: this is a fundamental test that assesses infertility in males. It consists of a thorough study of spermatozoid quantity and quality and helps to find the best possible options of treatment to correct any deficiencies. Thus presenting couples with a better chance of conceiving.

Open testicular biopsy or thin needle puncture: when necessary and if no spermatozoids are found in samples supplied by the patient, we have to proceed with a non-invasive technique. This technique takes around two hours and requires local anaesthetic; however, there is no need for long hospitalisation. Through thin needle retrieval, it is possible to obtain spermatozoids that will later be used in assisted reproduction techniques. Sometimes when the retrieval has been unsuccessful, we then proceed to open testicular biopsy (small testicle incision).

Varicocele: dilation of the testicle veins that affect, generally, the left side. In most cases it is harmless; in some others it produces pain after some exercise, with the feeling of heaviness in the scrotum. It has been related to a greater risk of male infertility. The diagnosis is made by physical examination and a testicular ultrasound. For precise results, it requires surgical treatment and hospitalisation for several hours.

Vasovasostomy: is the name of the surgical procedure practiced at our Centre on male patients wanting to reverse a vasectomy in order to become fathers once again and without having to go through the fertility techniques for an assisted pregnancy. It is a laborious operation that requires the surgeon to use magnifying lenses in order to re-attach a very small structure called the deferent duct. General anaesthetic is used for the patient’s comfort and normally requires a few hours in the ward. If this procedure is undergone six to eight years after the vasectomy was conducted, the results are usually very good.

PSA: in the last 20 years, establishing PSA in the blood has created a revolution in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. PSA is a tumoral marker that requires a blood test in order to measure its level; however, there are several factors that increase the level: benign prostatic growth, having sexual intercourse before the test, etc. The patient may be required to undergo a biopsy to rule out prostate cancer if certain levels of PSA are found and depending on the age of the patient.

Abdominal ultrasound: is an exploration test fast and very useful in the urology consultation, it’s totally harmless to the patient. It allows the assessment of organs like kidneys, bladder, prostate, etc, helping to diagnose frequent disorders like, kidney stones renal cysts, bladder tumours and benign prostatic hyperplasia among others.

Prostate biopsy: This is an essential test required for the diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Sedation is necessary as well as a short stay at the Centre for a few hours. This technique is a transrectal procedure monitored via ultrasound. It allows the extraction of prostate tissue that will later be analyzed by a pathologist, who will rule out or confirm the presence of a tumour. Sometimes it is necessary to repeat the biopsy for a second time when the first one gives a negative result. There is some risk associated with this test (rectal bleeding, blood in the urine, fever) even so it is a well-tolerated test and with very few complications.

Urodynamic study: at our Centre we carry out this study in order to evaluate the performance of the lower urinary system (bladder and urinary sphincter). The result of this test allows us to determine with great precision the pressure taking place in the bladder and urine flow so that we can offer the most appropriate treatment to help with the emptying and filling of the bladder. Patients with urinary incontinence or difficulties in urinating, as well as those with a spinal injury could benefit from this study.

Cistoscopy: The cystoscopy, or direct visualisation of the bladder using an endoscope through the urethra (a duct linking the bladder with the outside) is a very useful urological examination. It is administered under local anaesthesia (via gel in the urethra), and allows the diagnosis of urethra or bladder diseases. We can also use the procedure for taking biopsies for pathologic research. The presence of blood in the urine (hematury), certain symptoms in the urinary tract or the apparition of urinary infections in women are the main causes for carrying out the cystoscopy, which is conducted in our Clinic with no need for the patient to be hospitalised.

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