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The latest advances and professional information, proven and reliable on fertility and assisted reproduction, gynaecology, genetics, embryology, endocrinology and urology, written by the medical professionals of Instituto Bernabeu.

Reproduction and genetics guidance

Genetics guidance is the exchange through which an expert in genetics provides patients and their families with information and support on a genetic condition, inheriting that condition, the risk of recurrence and the implications for the individual and his or her family.
The aim of genetics guidance is to support the decision-making process whilst taking the patient’s values and beliefs into account, and to proceed based on the decision taken.
In the specific case of reproduction guidance, it is a question of guiding couples who are in a reproductive stage of their lives and who wish to have children and/or who are currently expecting a child. Therefore, we generally have two types of patients who need reproduction guidance. Whilst there are fundamental differences between the two, the aims of the guidance process remain the same and include: […]

2018-01-18T11:24:26+00:0019 de January de 2018|0 Comments

What is a progesterone deficit? Administration and side effects

Progesterone is one of the most important hormones in a woman’s metabolism and fertility. It is produced by the ovaries following ovulation during a normal menstrual cycle but when a woman is pregnant the placenta takes over responsibility for production. Its main roles consist of preparing the endometrium (internal layer of the uterus) for implanting a fertilised ovum and sustaining pregnancies.  It also plays an important role when a woman is breastfeeding because it helps to prepare the mammary glands for milk production. […]

2018-01-08T11:02:33+00:0012 de January de 2018|0 Comments

Can a patient know and choose their future child’s gender before embryo transfer?

It is possible to determine the gender of a future baby (embryo) before transfer takes place. In fact, this strategy has been used for many years in order to avoid the transmission of sex chromosome hereditary diseases (pre-implantation genetic diagnosis or PGD).
When the technique was in its early days, embryo analysis was carried out on day 3 of embryo development. Nowadays, it is carried out between days 5 and 7 of development (blastocyst stage). The analysis provides a simultaneous understanding of all the chromosomes in the embryo, meaning that transmission of chromosomal abnormalities can be completely eliminated. The technique has a 98% success rate. […]

2018-01-03T10:07:02+00:005 de January de 2018|0 Comments

What is artificial insemination at home? What are the differences between artificial insemination at home and artificial insemination in a fertility clinic?

As a result of a number of television programmes, as well as articles in newspapers and online, it has now become public knowledge that what we commonly know as artificial insemination at home is becoming an increasingly common practice.
The term could well be labelled incorrect or even deceptive if we take into account that insemination at home could never be on an equal footing to the artificial insemination carried out in a health clinic that has the necessary authorisation to carry out assisted reproduction techniques. The differences between the two are significant. […]

2017-12-29T10:59:12+00:0029 de December de 2017|0 Comments

The role of seminal fluid in improving fertility treatment

There are two parts to semen: spermatozoa and the seminal fluid that the spermatozoa use as their means of travel.
Seminal fluid has traditionally been attributed the role of a simple means of transportation. However, many years ago, it started to become clear that exposure to seminal fluid with no spermatozoa content improved in vitro fertilisation results and the results in couples experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss.
Increased proof of this improvement in results has emerged over the last few months, as indicated in the recent scientific publications referenced at the end of this post. These pieces of scientific work confirm early observations and explain the reasons why. […]

2017-12-20T10:23:13+00:0022 de December de 2017|0 Comments

Physiological conditions in embryo culture: reduction of the amount of oxygen in the incubator

Improving embryo culture by mimicking the conditions generated during in vivo culture is a key contributor towards improving success rates in couples who turn to in vitro fertilisation in order to solve their sterility issue.
In vitro culture of human embryos has traditionally been carried out in incubators in a controlled atmosphere at 6% CO2 and 21% O2. However, based on studies carried out on different species of mammals, we know that these conditions do not match those found in vivo in the fallopian tubes and the uterus where oxygen tension ranges between 2 and 8%. […]

2017-12-15T10:32:55+00:0015 de December de 2017|0 Comments

What became of my embryos? Haven’t I got embryos to freeze?

These are just some of the questions that couples might ask at an important time during their treatment, just before embryo transfer.
In all cases of fertility treatment involving the in vitro fertilisation (IVF) laboratory, it is essential that all couples are given extensive, detailed and personalised information. This means talking about the embryo fertilisation and development processes.
When only a few fertilised oocytes are available as a result of poor ovarian reserve, transfer is carried out on day 2 or 3 of development in around 60% of cases because at this stage we can clearly select the embryos that are suitable for transfer. In around half of these cases it is not possible to cryopreserve embryos for future attempts. […]

2017-12-05T11:22:45+00:007 de December de 2017|0 Comments

A comparison of the phases in IVF and ICSI treatment

1.- Ovarian stimulation in the patient is carried out by administering doses of hormones that stimulate ovarian function with the aim of achieving sufficient oocytes. The doses of the aforementioned hormones are personalised to each patient depending on her ovarian reserve and based on the results of antimullerian hormone levels in a blood test and a follicle count for each ovary using a vaginal ultrasound scan. Controlling each patient’s ovarian response is done over a series of vaginal ultrasound scans (an average of 3) and, in some cases, by checking oestradiol (the hormone produced by the ovary) levels in blood. Once the checks indicate that the ovary is ready, oocyte retrieval is scheduled. This period of ovarian stimulation lasts between 8 and 10 days in most women and does not affect the patient’s daily routine. […]

2017-11-29T12:47:52+00:001 de December de 2017|0 Comments

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD): comprehensive chromosome screening

Pre-implantacional genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a technique used to detect genetic or chromosomal abnormalities and it is performed on the embryo prior to transfer to the mother’s uterus.
Its use is recommended in couples where one of the partners is a carrier of a genetic or chromosomal abnormality that either means they are unable to get pregnant or increases the risk of pregnancy loss or abnormalities in their children. In some cases, it is the only means of having biologically healthy children and, in others, it is an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. […]

2017-11-24T16:04:03+00:0024 de November de 2017|0 Comments

Egg donor DNA storage bank

Thanks to the donor DNA storage bank at Instituto Bernabeu, patients who need to make use of donated gametes for their fertility treatment may, at any time, make a request (further to egg donor consent) for necessary genetics studies to be carried out with a view to preventing and adequately treating any conditions that may affect their children […]

2017-11-15T12:28:55+00:0017 de November de 2017|1 Comment
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