In vitro fertilisation treatment (IVF) techniques consist of fertilising oocytes with spermatozoa in a laboratory. They are held under conditions that are similar to their natural environment and, a few days later, the best embryo is selected and placed in the woman’s uterus where it remains until it implants. From this point on, monitoring procedures are the same as in any other spontaneous or natural pregnancy. […]
As is the case with all the organs in our bodies, over our lifetime, ovaries go through changes that affect not only their size but also how they perform. The ovaries are situated between the uterus and the fallopian tubes. They are essential to reproduction and, therefore, to the survival of the human race.
The ovaries begin to develop when female embryos are around 8 weeks old and during pregnancy they undergo a number of changes that prepare them for their role in reproduction when a woman is in her childbearing years. […]
The Fallopian tubes are two, very thin elongated structures measuring around 12 centimetres in length which connect the peritoneal cavity to the uterus. In this external abdominal part, they are in very close contact with the ovaries.
The Fallopian tubes play a vital role or function in human reproduction: in the first instance, they are responsible for suctioning the egg from the ovary each month and later for waiting 24-72 hours for fertilisation. Should this not happen, the egg is simply absorbed. If it is fertilised, the Fallopian tube allows the fertilised egg to travel to the uterus thanks to contractions and to the hair cells lining it. The fertilised egg (or zygote) remains in the Fallopian tube for around 48-72 hours on its journey to the uterus where it will eventually implant the embryo. […]
The tubes connecting the ovaries and the uterus are known as the Fallopian tubes (or uterine tubes). These structures play an essential role in natural reproduction and are responsible for receiving the egg each month and, furthermore, it is here that the union between egg and sperm takes place (fertilisation). They also enable the resulting embryo to be transported to the uterus which is where pregnancy will take place.
A hydrosalpinx is the result of an obstruction at the far ends of the Fallopian tubes which leads to the area becoming filled with liquid. This can lead to the Fallopian tubes becoming very swollen and distended, resulting in a ‘sausage-like’ appearance. In many cases, the obstruction and the liquid that has accumulated impair correct functioning of the Fallopian tube: semen does not travel up, the egg is not received by the tube and fertilisation does not take place, making achieving a natural pregnancy complicated (particularly so if both Fallopian tubes are affected). Alternatively, a hydrosalpinx can lead to pregnancy occurring within the tubes themselves (ectopic pregnancy). […]
Determining the ideal day for embryo transfer has always been a controversial issue and there are, even today, still a number of doubts surrounding this issue.
Embryo culture is, basically, a selection process. Each embryo’s progress is evaluated throughout and a decision is taken on which is most likely to implant successfully. […]
Endometriosis is the presence outside the uterus of tissue from the uterus known as the endometrium (the lining that covers the uterus where the embryo embeds). It can implant anywhere in the body, except the spleen. […]
Adenomyosis occurs when the tissue that lines the inner part of the uterus (the endometrium) is found in the outermost part of the uterus (myometrium), which is a muscle layer. It is sometimes referred to as endometriosis of the uterus, given that endometrial tissue is found where it should not be, just like it happens in endometriosis. […]
Confirming pregnancy after IVF and Egg Donation . The first ultrasound in which we can see the pregnancy is a very emotional time for the parents, especially for patients who have gone through treatments for assisted reproduction. For these patients, after having a positive pregnancy test , their anxiety does not go away but gets stronger until the pregnancy is seen to develop normally. Therefore it is very important to know what happens during this exploration, and what to expect. […]
The uterus, the organ where pregnancy takes place, has a cavity inside where implantation occurs. This cavity is covered by a soft tissue called endometrium, the “nest” that the uterus prepares every month for a possible embryo.
During the menstrual cycle the endometrium goes through 3 main phases: menstrual phase, when it is shed in order to grow again, follicular phase or preovulatory, when it grows, and luteal phase or postovulatory when it reaches the proper state in which to produce implantation. These phases of the cycle are easily seen in an ultrasound. […]
Embryo implantation is the process in which the human embryo adheres to the endometrium, where it continues developing. The first step of this process begins with the dialogue between the embryonic and maternal cells. […]