Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) are viruses that are transmitted through blood and body fluids as well as through vertical transmission (from the mother to the foetus). As a result, couples wishing to get pregnant in which one partner is a carrier of a virus are faced with the question of whether or not it is possible to do so without the other partner getting infected. If the male partner has one of these viruses and his female partner does not (serodiscordant couples), assisted reproduction technology (ART) can be used in order to avoid transmission. […]
Hepatitis is severe or chronic inflammation of the liver.
There are several possible causes including infections (viral, bacterial or parasitic).
The most common cause is a viral infection and, within these, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are of particular relevance. It is possible to get infected as a result of contact in blood and contaminated objects (unsterilised surgical material, syringes or needles), due to sexual transmission through mucous membranes and so-called vertical transmission (transmission from mother to child, particularly during childbirth). The chances of this type of transmission are the same in both vaginal and caesarean births. […]