Infertility was a taboo subject until just a few years ago but nowadays it is common practice to turn to a reproductive medicine clinic for help when women are facing issues having children naturally. Instituto Bernabeu wants to give you a few rules of thumb for knowing when the time has come to visit a fertility clinic. […]
The extent of the issue
Obesity is a public health issue both in the general population and in women of childbearing age. Far from improving, the problem has progressively increased over the last few years.
A study published in the journal The Lancet concludes that 13% of the world population has weight
issues. In Spain, there is a growing […]
The advantages of comprehensive chromosome screening (PGS/PGT-A/CCS) in women of an advanced maternal age
Women currently seek guidance on reproduction at a much older age than they did some years ago. As a result, amongst the women who undergo fertility treatment, there is a significant group of women of an advanced age and their prognosis is poorer. This is a huge challenge for reproduction specialists. […]
If you have been trying to get pregnant for a year or more without success, it’s time to search for an expert’s advice. […]
1 . Does it hurt?
Egg Retrieval is painless. It is carried out by means of a simple vaginal procedure, and the patient is lightly sedated.
2. What’s the right age for preserving my eggs?
Whilst there is no minimum nor maximum age, it is advisable to undergo the procedure before 35 years of age in order to obtain a sufficient number of good quality eggs because, from 35 years of age onwards, there tends to be a decrease in both their quantity and quality. […]
Any couple that turns to a fertility clinic undergoes a number of tests in order to diagnose the fertility issue that is making natural conception impossible. It is estimated that, at the end of the process, 1 in 4 couples are provided with no apparent reason for the reproduction issue. In these couples, no significant findings came up in the diagnostic tests carried out both on the male and the female partner.
Circumstances such as these generate a great deal of uneasiness and doubts in couples because, with no known reason for their infertility, they feel as if they were in no man’s land. […]
When good quality embryos do not implant correctly or lead to pregnancy loss, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) does not provide us with the results we had hoped for. This is often because the embryo is a carrier of abnormal chromosomes. Fortunately, in our clinic, we have access to the very latest in embryo chromosome diagnosis techniques such as array CGH and next generation sequencing (NGS). We can use this technology to detect abnormalities in the embryo that will cause pregnancy loss or that will lead to the birth of a child with chromosomal abnormalities such as Down’s Syndrome, also known as trisomy 21. As such, we can use these techniques to select and transfer the embryos with the greatest chance of leading to the birth of healthy child. […]
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) consists of studying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic abnormalities in the embryo prior to transfer to the mother. Its purpose is to ensure that children are healthy and put an end to the transmission of a specific condition.
There are two types of PGD: the PGD aimed at selecting embryos that are free of a genetic disorder affecting a single gene (PGD) and the PGD that analyses genetic diseases affecting one or more chromosomes (PGS/PGT-A/CCS or PGS). Their names are sometimes a cause for confusion. The post entitled Are PGD, PGS and CCS all one and the same? clarifies the differences between them. […]
Many factors can intervene in arrest processes during embryo development which mean cell division is detained and, therefore, it is not possible to implant the embryo in the mother’s uterus and bring about a pregnancy.
In the first instance, the conditions for development are essential. Embryos that develop in vitro are subjected to a number of artificial conditions that do not exist in vivo and which will always be less than optimum. Embryos which were apparently viable can suffer embryonic arrest. Huge efforts have been made over the last few years to try and mimic what happens inside the mother and replicate those conditions in laboratory processes. Most of all, the concentration of oxygen in incubators has been reduced, going from 20% down to 5%. The composition of the culture means has also been improved. This, along with exhaustive monitoring of pH and osmotic concentration, means that we can routinely carry out prolonged embryo development up to blastocyst stage in order to achieve improved embryo selection and increase pregnancy rates. […]
The human genome consists of 46 chromosomes: 23 of these are inherited from our father and the other 23 are inherited from our mother. Our organism’s entire genetic make-up is stored in these chromosomes. The 23 pairs are organised as follows: 22 pairs, known as autosomes, and one pair of sex chromosomes (X and Y) which differentiate the two sexes (XY for males and XX for females).
From a technical point of view, using pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, we have the means of analysing an embryo’s entire chromosomal make-up. This technique, which is known as PGS/PGT-A/CCS (Comprehensive Chromosome Screening), means additional or a lack of any chromosomes in the embryo can be detected. Therefore, we can use PGS/PGT-A/CCS to analyse the entire make-up of the embryo and determine that there are neither DNA excesses nor deficiencies which will stop the embryo from developing properly. But, if we focus on the sex chromosomes, we can also determine if the analysed embryo has two X chromosomes and will, therefore, be a girl (XX) or one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY) and will be a boy. […]