Embryo transfer to the uterus is the pinnacle of all courses of assisted reproduction treatment. It cannot be left to chance. The endometrium needs to be receptive and facilitate embryo embedding.
The endometrium can be prepared with the aid of drugs (oestrogens) to simulate natural uterine behaviour – a substituted or artificial cycle – or transfer can be carried out whenever biologically most appropriate following ovulation – transfer during a natural cycle. […]
assisted reproduction treatment
Improving embryo culture by mimicking the conditions generated during in vivo culture is a key contributor towards improving success rates in couples who turn to in vitro fertilisation in order to solve their sterility issue.
In vitro culture of human embryos has traditionally been carried out in incubators in a controlled atmosphere at 6% CO2 and 21% O2. However, based on studies carried out on different species of mammals, we know that these conditions do not match those found in vivo in the fallopian tubes and the uterus where oxygen tension ranges between 2 and 8%. […]
Cryopreservation, or embryo freezing, is an essential part of courses of assisted reproduction treatment since it means that embryos can be preserved in order to be used at a later date and without the passing of time having a negative impact on their viability.
Embryos obtained as a result of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) may be thawed for a number of reasons: […]
Endometriosis is a common disease. In most cases, it is difficult to diagnose and is closely linked to infertility. Instituto Bernabeu understands this and its Endometriosis Unit aims to ensure earlier and more accurate diagnosis using the very latest techniques. These range from ground-breaking biochemical markers to analyses of the realistic images provided by three-dimensional ultrasounds.
Once a longed-for pregnancy has been achieved, is prenatal care any different in these cases? […]
What happens following the wait (‘the beta hCG wait’) which generates so much anxiety whilst, at the same time, creating the hope that our lives may be changed forever when, in the end, the result is negative?
Many patients say that the absence of symptoms meant that they knew what was coming; others were also expecting the worst because they had begun to bleed prior to getting the result of the analysis.
It’s important to point out that the presence or absence of ‘symptoms’ which women associate with pregnancy are not a means of diagnosis. It’s also important to clarify that vaginal bleeding of varying intensity is not infrequent prior to the programmed pregnancy test date and this does not necessarily mean that the result will be negative. Indeed, the results obtained from an analysis of the pregnancy hormone in blood is the only reliable proof available. A urine analysis is also an option but needs to be carried out a little later on and is not one hundred percent reliable. […]
Transfer is undoubtedly one of the most important steps in assisted reproduction treatment.
When the patient steps out of the transfer room, a new beginning takes place and the experience will be totally different to what she has undergone up until that point. The embryos have now been transferred and the countdown to the pregnancy test has begun.
It’s important that patients understand that when they go to the toilet to urinate following embryo transfer, the embryos do not ‘fall out’ nor do they get lost since they are situated inside the uterus, a part of the body which is quite different to the one we use for urinating. […]
During the performance of assisted reproduction procedures, the best embryo is selected for transfer into the mother’s uterus. The selection is based on the “look” of the embryo shortly before transfer. As a matter of fact, waiting time normally stretches until day 5 of embryo culture in order to enhance the potential of the selected embryo and its synchronisation with the endometrium.
Sometimes the selection is favoured by performing a Comprehensive Chromosome Screening (PGS/PGT-A/CCS) test. Thanks to this technique, we can find out if an embryo has all the chromosomes in their exact number, in other words, if it is chromosomally normal. In this way, the selection is both morphological (external look) and chromosomal (internal look).
To be able to analyse the embryo we must first biopsy it (take a cell sample) without affecting its development and subsequent implantation. Biopsy techniques have been evolving until the process has been optimised. […]
Embryo transfer is the culmination of various assisted reproduction treatments: in-vitro fertilisation, egg donation, embryo adoption, use of cryopreserved embryos, and so on.
The embryo is transferred from the laboratory to its ultimate place of development, the mother’s uterus. […]