It is common knowledge that a seminogram is one of the basic tests that couples who are having issues getting pregnant. In other words, the male partner’s semen needs to be analysed in order to check certain parameters such as the quality of spermatozoa in ejaculate, their motility, their morphology and so on. The aim is to […]
The risk of contracting HIV during unprotected sexual intercourse is estimated to be between 0.5 and 1%. For serodiscordant couples (one partner is a carrier), trying for a child naturally can entail an elevated risk of transmission. In cases such as these, assisted reproduction techniques are an excellent choice for getting pregnant without the risk […]
When an oocyte is in an optimum state of maturation, ovulation takes place. This is known as day 0 of development (D0) and fertilisation by a competent spermatozoon must take place during this period.
When the oocyte is fertilised, it is then known as a zygote and
we are now on D1 of development. Certain characteristics and essential
structures need […]
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis(PGD) consists of studying chromosomalabnormalities and genetic abnormalities in the embryo prior to transfer to the mother. Itspurpose is to ensure that children are healthy and to bring thetransmission of a given condition to an end.
Significant progress that has revolutionised this area ofreproductive medicine has been made over the last few years and specificallywith regards to one type […]
Embryo fragmentation is a phenomenon that takes place in most embryos and its origin is not entirely clear. Some studies would seem to suggest that the fragments come from cell remains that have no nucleus or that they are the result of the decomposition of one or more cells from the embryo itself. The oocyte plays the most important role in fragmentation. Poor oocyte quality can lead to embryos that are highly fragmented. Embryo quality is determined by several characteristics such as the number of cells, their size or if the cell interior has an abnormality of any kind such as granularity or vacuolisation. However, one of the factors that has most impact on embryo quality is the extent of fragmentation. Based on the amount, in percentage, of space that it occupies, fragmentation is categorised into 4 types or degrees. […]
The extent of the issue
Obesity is a public health issue both in the general population and in women of childbearing age. The figures are a proof of this and, far from improving, the problem has been getting progressively worse over the last few years.
Maternal obesity in the United States of America was calculated to be 7% in 1980 and had risen up to 24% by 1999. If we take into account both obesity and excess weight, the available data indicates that the figures were 37.1% in 1999 and 40.5% in 2003.
The NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) reveals obesity figures (BMI or body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) in women of reproductive age (20 to 39 years of age) of 31.9%.
In other words, one in every three women of a fertile age is obese. […]
Cryptorchidism, from the Greek words kriptos (hidden) and orquis (testicle), is the failure of one or both testes to descend to the scrotum. It is estimated that between 2 and 5% of newborn boys have this abnormality although the figure rises to 30% when premature boys are taken into account. In many cases, the issue resolves itself naturally and, as a result, at one year of age, only 1% of boys have the condition. […]
Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition caused by partial or total loss of one of the X chromosomes.
All human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes and this is what is known as the karyotype. It is where all genetic information is stored. In other words, it is what determines our external appearance, our personal physical characteristics, how our organs work, whether or not we will have certain illnesses and so on. There are 22 pairs of numerical chromosomes ranging from 1 to 22 and one pair of sex chromosomes: X and Y. Women have two X chromosomes – one from their father and one from their mother. Men have one X chromosome – from their mother – and one Y chromosome – from their father. If, when a female embryo is generated, incorrect division leading to total or partial loss of the X chromosome takes place, this generates an abnormal karyotype that is characteristic of women with Turner syndrome. The syndrome, by definition, does not occur in males because they only have one X chromosome and cannot live unless this chromosome is present. […]