Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus and, during its most advanced stage of infection, it leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Whilst there is currently no cure for HIV/AIDS, antiretroviral treatments do exist that stop the symptoms from developing or delay them until later. As such, we come across increasing numbers of couples of childbearing age who wish to have children and in which one of the partners is a carrier of the virus. […]
Following in vitro fertilisation (IVF), the embryos obtained are evaluated in the laboratory before transfer to the patient’s uterus. A key question always comes up at this point: which and how many of those embryos should be transferred? […]
Hormones are messengers that are present in all multicellular organisms – be they animal or plant organisms – that coordinate the functions of each part of that organism.
The sex hormones par excellence are oestradiol in females and testosterone in males. However, the adrenal glands in men and women produce both hormones and they are both necessary for normal development of the two sexes. […]
Oocyte quality is one of the most important of the factors that have an impact on fertility in women. Optimum oocyte quality generally gives rise to embryos with an increased ability to implant in the uterus. […]
Assisted hatching is a laboratory technique that consists of making a small hole in the zona pellucida, the membrane surrounding the embryo, in order to make it easier for the embryo to hatch out (something that naturally needs to happen) and implant in the uterus. […]
Sexually transmitted disease (STDs) are infections that are transmitted, on the whole, during unprotected sexual intercourse. However, they can also be transferred from mother to child during pregnancy.
In the ovary, there are structures known as follicles that contain the oocytes or ova. When a patient undergoes in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment, ovarian reserve is one of the most relevant pieces of data and it is evaluated by means of an antral follicle count (follicles that are capable of responding to hormones during stimulation cycle). This information is essential in predicting the number of oocytes we will obtain following ovarian stimulation. Following an ultrasound scan and hormone level checks, the gynaecologist decides when ovulation should be triggered in the patient. […]
Acupuncture is a medical discipline with a history dating back several millenniums. For many years, attempts have been made to apply its therapeutic benefits to the field of sterility.
The results obtained to date have been contradictory. Whilst some groups have published improvements in the results obtained, others have not noted any differences at all. […]
Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system of our organism to combat possible infections of viral or bacterial origin. In some diseases, the immune system produces antibodies that, erroneously, attack the tissues of our own body. The result of this attack is the appearance of what are known as autoimmune diseases. […]
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment is not always successful. The reasons for this can include the cycle being cancelled during the stimulation phase or during the fertilisation and embryo development processes in the laboratory; or embryo implantation failing to take place following transfer and a negative pregnancy test result. […]