Uroandrological Dictionary

Testicular Doppler Ultrasound: routine procedure in the Uroandrology ward. It allows us to assess through ultrasounds testicular morphology and surrounding structures. It′s a harmless test for the patient that provides important data for the clinical diagnosis.

Seminogram or ejaculated semen study: this is a fundamental test that assesses infertility in males. It consists of a thorough study of spermatozoids quantity and quality and helps finding the best possible options of treatment to correct any deficiencies presenting couples with a better chance to conceive.

Open testicular biopsy or thin needle puncture: when necessary and if no spermatozoids are found on samples supplied by the patient, we have to proceed with a non invasive technique. This technique takes around two hours and requires local anaesthetic; however, there is no need for long hospitalisation. Through thin needle puncture, is possible to obtain spermatozoids that will later be used in techniques of assisted reproduction. Sometimes when the puncture has been unsuccessful, we proceed to open testicular biopsy (small testicle incision).

Varicocele: dilation on the testicle veins that affect, generally, the left side. In most cases the finding is meaningless; in some others it produces pain after practicing some exercise, feeling a heaviness sensation of the scrotum. It has been related to a greater risk of male infertility. The diagnostic is based on the physical exploration and a testicular ultrasound, its treatment, when precise, is a surgical one, and requires hospitalisation for several hours.

Vasovasostomy: is the name of the surgical procedure practiced in our Centre to our male patients wanting to reverse a vasectomy in order to be able to become parents once again and without having to go through the fertility techniques for an assisted pregnancy. It′s a laborious intervention that requires the surgeon the use of magnifying lenses in order to re-attach a very small structure called the deferent duct. General anaesthetic is used for the patient′s comfort and it normally requires a few hours in the ward. When this procedure is done in the six to eight years after the vasectomy, results are usually very good.

PSA: in the last 20 years, establishing PSA in the blood has meant a massive revolution in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. PSA is a tumoral marker that requires a blood test in order to measure its level; however, there are several factors that increase the level: benign prostatic growth, having sexual intercourse before the test, among others. Only after certain level of PSA and in relation to age the patient might be required to undergo a biopsy to rule out prostate cancer.

Abdominal ultrasound: is an exploration test fast and very useful in the urology consultation, it′s totally harmless to the patient. It allows the assessment of organs like kidneys, bladder, prostate, etc, helping to diagnose frequent disorders like, kidney stones renal cysts, bladder tumours and benign prostatic hyperplasia among others.

Prostate biopsy: it′s an essential test required for the diagnostic of prostatic cancer. Sedation is necessary therefore staying in the ward is needed for a few hours. This technique is a transrectal procedure always controlled by the use of ultrasound, it allows extracting prostate tissue that will later be analyzed by a pathologist, who will rule out or confirm the presence of a tumour. Sometimes it is necessary to repeat the biopsy for a second time when the first one gave a negative result. This test is not risk exempted (rectal bleeding, blood in the urine, temperatures) even so it is a well tolerated test and with just a few complications.

Urodynamic study: at our Centre we have the possibility to carry out this kind of studies that allow us to know the performing of the lower urinary system (bladder and urinary sphincter). The performance of this test allow us to determine with great precition the presure taken place in the bladder and urine incontinence, to be able to give the more appropiate treatment for the vesical emptying and filling. The performance of this test could be necessary in patients with urinary incontinence, with an important miccion dificulty, as well as those with a spinal injury, among others.

Cistoscopy: The cistoscopy, or direct visualization of the bladder by means of endoscopy through the urethra (a duct linking the bladder with the outside) is a very useful exploration in Urology. It is well tolerated under local anaesthesia (administrated with gel in the urethra), and allows the diagnosis of urethra or bladder diseases, and even the biopsy taking for the pathology research when needed. The presence of blood in the urine (hematury), certain symptoms in the urinary tract or the apparition of urinary infections in women are the main indications for carrying out the cistoscopy, which is conducted in our Clinic with no need for the patient to be hospitalized.

Frequently Asked Questions

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