Teratozoospermia and male infertility

Teratozoospermia is an increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm in a sperm sample and it is identified by means of a seminogram or semen analysis.
According to the criteria in the 5th edition of the World Health Organisation (WHO), 2010 manual, a man has teratozoospermia when the percentage of normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate is below 4%.
Defects in sperm […]

Progesterone and its role in reproduction

What is progesterone? Just a simple look at the word itself gives us an idea of what its functions are. PROGESTERONE: the hormone which facilitates pregnancy. This is a good point from which to start out.
Progesterone plays an essential role in pregnancy and it has many and varied effects. It is a natural substance which is secreted from the ovaries following ovulation and continues throughout the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone ensures that a woman’s uterus is receptive and, when production is insufficient, the embryo does not implant correctly or runs a high risk of leading to a miscarriage. It also relaxes the muscles in the uterus, making it better suited for the early days of pregnancy. […]

Helping a relative or friend with fertility issues.

Infertility can have an impact on many levels: it can affect the person with the issue as well as that person’s partner. When a couple embarks upon such a significant project as maternity and is faced with failure month after month, despite every effort, negative feelings such as anger, resistance, frustration, despair and sadness arise and they are difficult to manage. This can lead to feelings of depression and anxiety. On the whole, it is an issue which patients find difficult to speak about and, as a result, they are not surrounded by a strong social or family support network.

If you know anyone who may be suffering from the emotional impact of infertility, here are 10 pieces of useful advice: […]

Male fertility tests

When a couple is faced with difficulties getting pregnant, there is approximately a 50% chance of the reason for this being a factor in the male partner.
The main cause of fertility issues in men is poor semen quality. Therefore, various parameters in semen need to be analysed in order to determine what the quality of the semen is. Two parameters are particularly important: the concentration or quantity of sperm in semen and their motility. This needs to be adequate in order to ensure that the egg is fertilised.
There are several quick tests available on the market. They are similar to female ovulation tests and they are understood to carefully evaluate semen quality and determine if a man is fertile or not. But are these tests really useful in understanding semen quality? […]

By |2016-10-20T18:04:30+00:0021 de October de 2016|Fertility, News, Pregnancy, Sterility, Urology|0 Comments

A more reliable means of detecting anti-Müllerian hormone and evaluating ovarian reserve

A new, much more reliable, faster technique (results are obtained in 3 days) has been incorporated into our clinic and, since it is carried out directly in our laboratories, it has brought the price down to €50. The technique is carried out on a blood sample which can be taken at our clinics or a sample can be sent to us by courier.
Determining anti-Müllerian hormone levels in a woman’s blood helps us to evaluate ovarian reserve and, along with a transvaginal ultrasound used to carry out an antral follicle count, this provides us with information about her reproductive future and whether or not trying for a child is a matter of urgency.
It can also be used in order to personalise fertility treatment and to help predict how successful it is likely to be.
Cases of couples in clinics in which the female has impaired ovarian reserve are more and more common. A reduction in ovarian reserve of this kind might be expected in older women but not so in younger women, particularly when her menstrual cycles have not been irregular. […]

Reduced mobility and fertility

Reproduction issues always need to be dealt with with a degree of sensitivity. When there is also a disability within the couple, the emotional side of things calls for even greater care and steps should be taken in order to deal adequately with any implications the disability in question has from a medical point of view.
In 2006, the United Nations (UN) published guidelines on the rights of people with reduced mobility. These guidelines indicate disabled people’s rights across all levels of society and include the right to have children and access to sexual health.
At Instituto Bernabeu, we aim to comply with the aforementioned guidelines and provide our patients with the means and solutions they need and which adapt to the circumstances of each physical disability. This covers disabilities resulting from a genetic condition (hereditary), disease or an accident and, from a fertility point of view, each case is given personalised treatment. […]

Beta hCG (β-hCG) result table

ACCESS INFORMATION PRIOR TO THIS POST ON BETA
β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is a glycoprotein that is initially secreted by trophoblast cells in the embryo shortly after it implants in the uterus. The rapid increase in serum levels of hCG following conception means it is an excellent early indicator of pregnancy. It’s also a parameter which is widely used for monitoring that a pregnancy is progressing correctly.
On a physiological level, hCG triggers the corpus luteum and thus facilitates progesterone and oestrogen synthesis. Progesterone stimulates the maturing of blood and capillary vessels that help the foetus to develop correctly.
hCG levels can be measured in blood or in urine.
Urine tests have a detection limit of 20 to 100 mUI/ml depending on the brand. If the measurement is to be taken in urine, a sample of the first urine of the day is recommended. This is particularly true during the early days of pregnancy because, if the urine is too diluted, the test can return incorrect negative results.
hCG levels in blood can be used to detect levels as low as 5 mUI/ml and the concentration levels of the hormone can therefore be calculated.
hCG levels in multiple pregnancies are 30-50 % higher than in pregnancies where there is only one foetus. However, a multiple pregnancy should be confirmed by means of an ultrasound.
[…]

The immune system and pregnancy

Numerous factors are involved in making the amazing miracle of pregnancy possible. Many of them are very well understood whilst others, such as the immune system and its role in embryo implantation, given their importance, are still being studied and researched in depth. If the immune system is what protects the body against infection and diseases thanks to its defences, what role does it play in achieving pregnancy? […]

Obesity and embryo implantation failure

It has long been known that patients who are overweight face increased reproduction and pregnancy loss issues.
Issues achieving a successful pregnancy are even greater if, as well as being obese, the patient also has illnesses such as diabetes, thyroid issues or other metabolic disorders (refer to further information on endocrinology and pregnancy).
However, little was known about the direct effect of obesity on endometrial receptivity and successful or unsuccessful embryo implantation. […]

Hyperprolactinaemia: excess of prolactin and fertility

Prolactin is a hormone that is produced by the   pituitary gland and although it also forms part of the   stress hormone circuit, it plays a vital role in breast development during pregnancy and the production of breast milk after giving birth.
Abnormally high levels of prolactin, which is referred to as hyperprolactinemia, causes disruptions in the normal menstrual cycle, anovulatory cycles, infertility and the   production and spontaneous flow of breast milk in women who are not pregnant or breastfeeding a baby. […]