Are PGD, PGS and CCS all one and the same?

Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a combination of techniques carried out on embryos prior to transfer to the womb with the aim of studying possible chromosomal and/or genetic disorders. Its purpose is to ensure healthy offspring and stop disorders from being passed on to children.
The 21st century has witnessed huge steps being made in terms of embryo abnormality analysis. The range of diagnosis options and the reliability of techniques have converted something which was only a pipe-dream a few years ago into a reality. Nowadays, such techniques are routine and Instituto Bernabeu is a worldwide leader in providing its patients with the latest in embryo genetic diagnosis.
This revolution has led to a number of new testing techniques coming to the fore. Most of them are known by their initials and, in many cases, this has turned PGD into mumbo-gumbo for patients who end up getting them mixed up and confused. We would like to use this forum to shed some light on this sea of initials. […]

Vitrification: the cold revolution

Vitrification is generally associated with delaying maternity. It involves preserving eggs at low temperatures so that they may be used in the future. This is, in itself, astounding since it enables gametes to be preserved by means of advanced and ultra-rapid cell freezing so that they may be used sometime in the future. The uses to which this technique may be put are so varied and numerous and have changed the work environment in the most prestigious of fertility clinics to such an extent that experts have no doubts about referring to vitrification as a ‘revolutionary’ procedure.
“We could say that cryopreservation is currently the most important aspect of any assisted reproduction clinic” assures Dr Jorge Ten, head of the Reproductive Biology Operational Unit at Instituto Bernabeu in Alicante. In the words of this expert, this technique “has changed enormously over the last 6 to 8 years”. Vitrification was initially carried out using “slow freezing techniques which caused cell damage” in the oocyte. This cell, “in the case of women, is the largest in the human body and has the greatest content in water. Therefore, when frozen, it produced poorer results due to the formation of ice crystals which damaged its structure”. The ice crystals which formed as a result of the aforementioned slow freezing and the high water content in the cell meant that survival rates were “between 20 and 30%. Almost no oocytes survived”. […]

Genetic Health of the Embryo: Science Applied to Life

This is not science fiction, it’s reality. It is reproductive medicine and advanced genetics together to achieve healthy children who are free of diseases. Before, medicine focused on a person’s health. Now thanks to genetics and scientific research we are able to go one step further and take care of the embryo. […]

Embryonic arrest, why don’t all of my embryos develop equally?

When one starts an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment, one of the most frequent concerns is the number of high quality embryos that can be obtained.

This number is variable and depends on several factors such as the ovarian reserve and gamete quality (egg and sperm). Once the eggs are fertilised, they are considered embryos, which begins after their early division. The embryo division is observed in the IVF laboratory on a daily basis and is key information to determine the embryo quality. The Spanish Association of Reproductive Biology (ASEBIR) establishes a classification according to various observed morphological parameters, which indicate the embryo quality according to their capacity to implant in the womb. […]

Is it beneficial to rest after the embryo transfer?

Without a doubt, one of the most emotionally stressful stages a patient undergoing IVF has to face is the period between the embryo transfer and the pregnancy test result.

It is a natural instinct for someone in this situation to want to do everything in her power to increase the chances of success, which is why she is extra sensitive to any messages she receives from family members, friends, the internet, etc. This leads to a confusing situation because oftentimes the advice received is contradictory. As if that weren’t enough, the vast majority is unfounded and not validated by any scientific evidence. Their question is often “should I rest or not?” […]

Avoiding multiple pregnancy: Why is it important to avoid pregnancy of twins or triplets?

Multiple pregnancy is, along with ovarian hyperstimulation, the most significant complication in fertility treatments.

Most couples that go through assisted reproduction techniques consider multiple pregnancies to be desirable or the lesser evil. However, pregnancies of twins and even more so triplets are associated with a series of complications that challenge the pregnancy ending in the birth of a healthy baby. Let us not forget that the birth of a healthy baby is the only objective of assisted reproductive techniques. […]

Towards a Positive Embryo Transfer

At first glance, the embryo transfer seems to be the quickest and simplest step in the In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) process. However, it is actually the most critical step in the entire treatment. Successfully overcoming previous hurdles means nothing if the embryo transfer is not done well. This happens if too much time lapses between when the embryo is taken out of the incubator and when it is placed back in the uterus. […]

Instituto Bernabeu Shared Risk Program: serious commitment to the result


Instituto Bernabeu has always been loyal to its patient care philosophy, and is even more so now in these current hard times, by planning and implementing new projects and services aimed at helping couples achieve their dream of parenthood.

We want to share your efforts and risk by promising to back up every activity with the latest equipment, innovative techniques and cutting-edge technology alongside our entire team’s professionalism, experience, warmth and dedication. […]

ROPA method: Shared Maternity

ROPA (Reception of Oocytes from PArtner, or Partner Assisted Reproduction) is a treatment in reproductive medicine that allows married same sex female couples to both participate in the important act of creating a family.

This treatment allows one of the women in the couple to give her eggs (the genetic material that is passed on to the baby), and the other woman will carry the pregnancy. […]

Partner Assisted Reproduction Technique, or the PAiR method

When a female homosexual couple decides to have a child through assisted reproduction techniques, there are several available options:

Artificial insemination with donor sperm
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) with donor sperm
Double donation of eggs and sperm
Embryo adoption with embryos donated by other couples
Partner Assisted Reproduction Technique “PAiR” […]