What are follicles? Number, growth and other characteristics

Sep 01 2014

What are ovarian follicles?

To start with, let’s state that the follicles are not. The follicles are not oocytes (eggs). Many patients confuse these terms believing that follicle equals oocyte.

The female gamete is the egg, and the sperm is the male gamete. These are the cells involved in embryos obtained after fertilization. Continue Reading »

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Selection of egg donors at Instituto Bernabeu

Aug 18 2014

01Currently, oocyte donation is probably the most demanded technique in fertility centers, mainly due to the increase of maternal age. Voluntary participation of donors is essential, but donors must be evaluated carefully in order to avoid unsatisfactory results (do not forget that the ultimate goal is the birth of a healthy child without prejudice to the donor or the recipient couple).
In a recent study carried out in our center and presented at the Congress of the British Fertility Society, the leading causes of rejection in our program were evaluated in 560 potential egg donors. Continue Reading »

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Can we avoid the Genetic Ammiocentesis?

Aug 04 2014

01 Genetic Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic technique aimed at obtaining fetal karyotype. The karyotype is the number of chromosomes that are endowed with all people. Normal people we have 46 chromosomes distributed in 23 pairs (22 pairs of chromosomes called autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes, XX or XY, which determine the sex of the fetus). Down syndrome or trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal abnormality in new born infants; in this case, the individual has 47 chromosomes, and the alteration is that there are 3 21 chromosomes rather than two. Continue Reading »

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Assited Reproduction Techniques: FIV vs ICSI

Jul 21 2014

01 Currently there are two main techniques used to achieve Assisted Reproduction IVF. These two techniques are conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Continue Reading »

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Why not all embryos obtain from a cycle of in vitro fertilization are suitable for freezing?

Jul 03 2014

01 Today, in In Vitro fertilization treatments, it is not extraordinary to find ourselves on the day of embryo transfer with a high number of good quality embryos. For a fresh transfer we shall be electing the embryo or embryos that morphologically and kinetically demonstrate greater development and ‘the other’ good quality ones can be cryopreserved. Continue Reading »

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Embryo normal and abnormal division

Jun 25 2014

01 Since we can remember, we must assume that we belong to described canons. These canons are set based on an average population, such us; children in pediatric check-ups are asses by a percentile of height and weight. As adults we are asses around the body mass index. In both cases, we try to reach an “average” rate.

What we consider average?

This also happens at embryonic stage. The process of embryo division observation is established to assess whether or not embryos are normal. This observation should be performed in specific times, so each embryo is observed and evaluated daily.

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Criteria for embryo classification

Jun 12 2014

01From fertilization and until the embryo transfer takes place in the womb, embryos follow a development that is valued by embryologists daily. Those embryos that have kept a correct evolution and are in better condition are selected to be transferred. Continue Reading »

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Anembryonic gestation

May 15 2014

01 The anembryonic pregnancy or blighted ovum” is a specific type of miscarriage in which the fertilized egg implants in the uterus but the embryo does not develop. It is a relatively common problem: 10-15% of clinically detected pregnancies are lost spontaneously and one third of them are blighted ovum.

After fertilization, that is, after the union of sperm and egg, begin a series of cell divisions that lead to the formation of the gestational sac  surrounded by a “shell” or cover called trophoblast (which is the one that will lead to future placenta); inside the gestational sac the embryo will develop. In the case of anembryonic pregnancy the gestational sac is formed with the trophoblastic cover but the embryo is not displayed because it has stopped developing at a very early stage, before reaching a millimeter in size, so it cannot be detected with an ultrasound. Continue Reading »

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Blocked fallopian tube. The involvement of “tubal factor” in fertility

May 05 2014

01The Fallopian tubes are trumpet-shaped structures that begin in the uterine cavity and end up opening by the ovaries. After ovulation, the fallopian tubes collect the released egg that is fertilized on the first portion, which is the closest part to the ovary. For this, the spermatozoa travel through the vagina, the cervix, the uterine cavity, and finally the route to the end of the tube. After fertilization occurs, the embryo (fertilized egg) launches its first divisions and travels through the fallopian tube towards the uterus where implantation occur and thus the establishment of pregnancy. Continue Reading »

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Difference between identical and fraternal twins

Apr 17 2014

01Before establishing the biological origin differences between identical and fraternal twins, let’s make a quick note on the etymology of both words.

Etymologically both terms have the same origin (Latin gemellicium) and were used interchangeably to refer to children born in the same delivery. The only difference was the use of the term fraternal twin in the popular speech twin and identical twin in the cultivated speech. However, the semantic evolution of both words has been accompanied by the numerous advances in the field of genetics and knowledge of the development of the human embryo. In fact, since they differ in the latest edition of the dictionary of the RAE: Continue Reading »

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